political communication

Negative advertising: A definition

Throughout the area of research, different definitions of negative advertising and marketing are suggested. I have chosen to go with the definition by Bruce Pinkleton (1997). He suggests three types of negative advertising. I have chosen to broaden this theory to cover not only advertising but all negative communication.

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The impact of negative communication on image and reputation

Swedish parties are gradually becoming more market oriented and professionalized. As a result the ideological difference between various parties has decreased and the majority of electors are voting less tribally than in the past and no longer follow the left or the right. In this paper we built our argumentation based on that due to the small differences in the promised service by various parties, image and reputation becomes more important in election process. We looked at how different parties handle their image and reputation process and examined the impact of various exogenous factors impact on party’s image and reputation such as negative advertising, negative communication and the role of media.

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